Research & Further Reading
What follows is a series of peer-reviewed, controlled studies on brainwave entrainment, categorized by control type.
We provide full credit to our partners Transparent Corp for the majority of this list. They created possibly the most comprehensive brainwave entrainment reference list of its type online.
We also suggest you read Tina Huang of Transparent Corp's own paper, "A Comprehensive Review of the Psychological Effects of Brainwave Entrainment" by clicking here.
Studies that compared different
experimental conditions against each other :
Howard, C. E., Graham, L. E., 2nd and Wycoff, S. J., 1986. "A comparison of methods for reducing stress among dental students." J Dent Educ. 50, 542-544.
Lane, J. D., Kasian, S. J., Owens, J. E. and Marsh, G. R., 1998. "Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood." Physiol Behav. 63, 249-252.
Leonard, K. N., Telch, M. J. and Harrington, P. J., 1999. "Dissociation in the laboratory: a comparison of strategies." Behav Res Ther. 37, 49-61.
Morse, D. R. and Chow, E., 1993. "The effect of the Relaxodont brain wave synchronizer on endodontic anxiety: evaluation by galvanic skin resistance, pulse rate, physical reactions, and questionnaire responses." Int J Psychosom. 40, 68-76.
Ossebaard, H. C., 2000. "Stress reduction by technology? An experimental study into the effects of brainmachines on burnout and state anxiety." Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 25, 93-101.
Rosenfeld, J. P., Reinhart, A. M. and Srivastava, S., 1997. "The effects of alpha (10-Hz) and beta (22-Hz) "entrainment" stimulation on the alpha and beta EEG bands: individual differences are critical to prediction of effects." Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 22, 3-20.
San Martini, P., Venturini, R., Zapponi, G. A. and Loizzo, A., 1979." Interaction between intermittent photic stimulation and auditory stimulation on the human EEG. Preliminary investigation through power spectral analysis." Neuropsychobiology. 5, 201-206.
Williams, J., Ramaswamy, D. and Oulhaj, A., 2006. "10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people." BMC Neurosci. 7, 21.
Williams, J. H., 2001. "Frequency-specific effects of flicker on recognition memory." Neuroscience. 104, 283-286.
Studies with music as controls :
Joyce, M. and Siever, D., 2000. "Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) Program as a Treatment for Behavior Disorders in a School Setting." Journal of Neurotherapy. 4, 9-25.
Kliempt, P., Ruta, D., Ogston, S., Landeck, A. and Martay, K., 1999. "Hemispheric-synchronisation during anaesthesia: a double-blind randomised trial using audiotapes for intra-operative nociception control." Anaesthesia. 54, 769-773.
Padmanabhan, R., Hildreth, A. J. and Laws, D., 2005. "A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery." Anaesthesia. 60, 874-877.
Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C. and Zwickey, H., 2007a. "Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects." J Altern Complement Med. 13, 25-32.
Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C., Zwickey, H. and Zajdel, D., 2007b. "Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects." J Altern Complement Med. 13, 199-206.
Vichitvejpaisal, P., 2012. “The Effect of Binaural Beat Audio on Operative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Local Anesthesia for Ophthalmic Surgery.” (Publication in a peer-reviewed journal is forthcoming)
Studies with glasses, no photic
stim as controls :
Kumano, H., Horie, H., Kuboki, T., Suematsu, H., Sato, H., Yasushi, M., Kamei, T. and Masumura, S., 1997. "EEG-driven photic stimulation effect on plasma cortisol and beta-endorphin." Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 22, 193-208.
Nomura, T., Higuchi, K., Yu, H., Sasaki, S., Kimura, S., Itoh, H., Taniguchi, M., Arakawa, T. and Kawai, K., 2006. "Slow-wave photic stimulation relieves patient discomfort during esophagogastroduodenoscopy." J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 21, 54-58.
Solomon, G. D., 1985. "Slow wave photic stimulation in the treatment of headache--a preliminary report." Headache. 25, 444-446.
Berg, K., and Siever, D., 2009. "A controlled comparison of audio-visual entrainment for treating Seasonal Affective Disorder." Journal of Neurotherapy 13.3 (2009): 166-175.
Other studies with controls (with
no exposure) :
Budzynski, T., Jordy, J., Budzynski, H., Tang, H. and Claypoole, K., 1999. "Academic Performance Enhancement with Photic Stimulation and EDR Feedback. Journal of Neurotherapy." 3, 11-21.
Patrick, G. J., 1996. "Improved neuronal regulation in ADHD: An application of fifteen sessions of photic-driven EEG neurotherapy." Journal of Neurotherapy. 1, 27-36.
Below are additional reading recommendations.
Note: This list recommends studies on entrainment as well as books and additional research into biofeedback and other important aspects this field.
Anderson DJ. (1989) The treatment of migraine with variable frequency photo-stimulation. Headache. 29(3):154-155.
Anoukhin, A. "EEG Alpha Rhythm Frequency and Intelligence in Normal Individuals." Intelligence, 23: 1-14
Baehr, E., PhD, Rosenfeld, J. Peter, PhD, & Baehr, R., PhD "Frontal Asymmetry Changes Reflect Brief Mood Shifts in both Normal and Depressed Subjects." Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation
Baum, Kenneth "The Mental Edge"
Benson, H., M.D. "The Relaxation Response"
Benson H., Wallace, R.K. "Decreased Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects Who Practiced Meditation." Circulation Supplement II to Vols. 45 and 46
Berg, K, Siever, D (1999). "Audio-Visual Entrainment as a Treatment Modality for Seasonal Affective Disorder." Presented at the Society for Neuronal Regulation.
Berg, K, Mueller, H., Siebael, D., Siever, D. (1999). "Outcome of Medical Methods, Audio-Visual Entrainment, and Nutritional Supplementation for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome." Presented at the Society for Neuronal Regulation.
Bermer, F. (1958). "Cerebral and cerebellar potentials." Physiological Review, 38, 357-388.
Boersma, F., Gagnon, C. (1992). "The Use of Repetitive Audiovisual Entrainment in the Management of Chronic Pain." Medical Hypnosis Journal, Vol 7, No3: 80-97
Boynton, T. (2001). "Applied research using alpha/theta training for enhancing creativity and well-being." Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 5-18.
Brucato, D., Abascal, J. (1990) "Pilot Study - Effects of Synchro Energizer Mediated Stress Management With the Metro-Date Police Department"
Brackopp, G. W. (1984). Review of research on Multi-Modal sensory stimulation with clinical implications and research proposals. Unpublished manuscript--see Hutchison (1986).
Budzynski, T., Ph.D. (1977). "Tuning in on the twilight zone." Psychology Today, August.
Budzynski, T., Ph.D. "Brain Lateralization and Rescripting"
Budzynski, T., Ph.D. "The Case for Alpha-Theta: A Dynamic Hemispheric Asymmetry Model"
Budzynski, T., Ph.D. "Clinical Guide to Light and Sound"
Budzynski, T., Ph.D. (1995) "Barebones 14 Hz EEG training for migraine." Presented at the FUTUREHEALTH EEG conference
Budzynski, Thomas H. (2009) “Introduction to quantitative EEG and neurofeedback: Advanced theory and applications.” Academic Press.
Cade, C. M. & Coxhead, N. (1979) "The Awakened Mind: BiofeedBack and the Development of Higher States of Consciousness." New York: Delacorte Press.
Chatrian, G., Petersen, M., Lazarte, J. (1960). "Responses to Clicks from the Human Brain: Some Depth Electrographic Observation." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 12: 479-487
Cramond, Bonnie. "Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Creativity - What's the Connection?" The Journal of Creative Behaviour, Vol 28, Number 3, Third Quarter 1994
Christopher, Bonny R. (2010) "The Influence of Binaural Beats on Vigilance and Beta Brainwave Magnitudes."
Deikman, A. (1969). "De-automatization and the mystic experience." In C. T. Tart (Ed.), Altered States of Consciousness. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Dempsey, E., Morison, R. (1942). "The Interaction of Certain Spontaneous and Induce Cortical Potentials." American Journal of Physiology, 135: 301-307
Dijk, E.O. and Nijholt, A. and van Erp, J.B.F. and Kuyper, E. and van Wolferen, G. (2010) “Audio-tactile stimuli to improve health and well-being.” Proceedings symposium on Haptic and Audio-Visual Stimuli: Enhancing Experiences and Interaction, 7 July, 2010, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1-10.
Donaldson, S., PhD and Donaldson, M., MEd. "QEEG, Psychological Status and EMG Activity in Fibromyalgia." SNR 2002, International Society for Neuronal Regulation
Du Plessis, Alten. (2010) "Combining Brainwave Entrainment, Mind Programming Techniques and Tracking Technologies to Help Individualize and Optimize the Soft Skills Development of University Students." World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education. Vol. 2010. No. 1.
Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2003, in press) Ecological validity of neurofeedback: Modulation of slow wave EEG enhances musical performance. NeuroReport, 14(1)
Eppley, K.R., Abrams, A. (1989). "Differential Effects Of Relaxation Techniques on Trait Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis." Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 45, 6: 957-973
Evans, R J., Gustafson, L. A., O'Connell, D. N., Orne, M. T. & Shor, R. E. "Verbally induced behavioral response during sleep." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1, 1-26.
Felipe, A. "Attitude change during interrupted sleep." Yale University Doctoral dissertation
Fox, P., Raichle, M. (1985). "Stimulus Rate Determines Regional Blood Flow in Striate Cortex." Annals of Neurology, Vol 17, No 3: 303-305.
Fredrick, J., Lubar, J., Rasey, H., Blackburn, J. (1999). "Effects of 18.5 Hz Audiovisual Stimulation On EEG Amplitude at the Vertex." Proceedings AAPB Thirteenth Anniversary Annual Meeting, 42-45.
Foster, D. S. (1990) "EEG and subjective correlates of alpha frequency binaural beats stimulation combined with alpha biofeedBack." Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, Order No. 9025506.
Foulkes, D. & Vogel, G. (1964). "Mental activity at sleep-onset." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70, 231-243.
Garfield, C. and Bennett, H. "Peak Performance: Mental Training Technique of the World's Greatest Athlete"
Giannitrapani, D. (1969). "EEG Average Frequency and Intelligence." Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 27, 480-486.
Goleman, D. "The Relaxed Body"
Gontgovsky, S., Montgomery, D. (1999). "The Physiological Response to "Beta Sweep" Entrainment." Proceedings AAPB Thirteenth Anniversary Annual Meeting, 62-65.
Goodin, Peter, et al. (2012) "A High-Density EEG Investigation into Steady State Binaural Beat Stimulation." PloS one 7.4
Gurnee, R. "Major Depressive Disorder: QEEG Subtypes and Treatment Implications." Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation
Hammond, D. Corydon, Ph.D. (1999). "Treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome with neurofeedback and self-hypnosis: A case report." Journal of Neurotherapy, 3 (3 & 4) 63-64.
Hammond, D. Corydon, Ph.D. "EEG Patterns Associated with High Hypnotizability: Practical Clinical Implications"
Hammond, D. Corydon, Ph.D. "Roshi Compared with the Rosenfeld Depression Protocol:A Case Report." Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation
Hardt, J. V, & Kamiya, J. (1978). "Anxiety change through electroencephalographic alpha feedback seen only in high anxiety subjects." Science, 201, 79-81.
Hawes, T., M.ED., ED.S. "Using Light And Sound Technology To Access "The Zone" In Sports And Beyond"
Hermens DF, Soei EX, Clarke SD, Kohn MR, Gordon E, Williams LM. (2005). "Resting EEG theta activity predicts cognitive performance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder."
Hoovey, Z. B., Heinemann, U. & Creutzfeldt, O. D. (1972). "Inter-hemispheric 'synchrony' of alpha waves." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 32, 337-347.
Hurley, J.D., & Meminger, S. R. (1992). "A relapse-prevention program: Effects of electromyographic training on high and low levels of state and trait anxiety." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 74, 699705.
Ibric, Victoria L. , MD, PhD. "Neurofeedback in major depression associated to addictions - a case study." Journal Of NeuroTherapy
James H. Satterfield, M.D., Dennis P. Cantwell, M.D., Ronald E. Saul, M.D., Alvin Yusin, M.D. (1974). "Intelligence, Academic Achievement, and EEG Abnormalities in Hyperactive Children." Am J Psychiatry 131:4
Jausovec, N. (1996). "Differences in EEG Alpha Activity Related to Giftedness." Intelligence, 23, 159-173.
Kooi, K. A. (1971). Fundamentals of Electroencephalography. New York: Harper & Row.
Lavallee, Christina F., Stanley A. Koren, and Michael A. Persinger. (2011) "A Quantitative Electroencephalographic Study of Meditation and Binaural Beat Entrainment." The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 17.4: 351-355.
Lawson, R. and Rogers, R. "Relationship between depression severity and overall EEG abnormality." Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation
Lawson, R., M.S., QEEGT and Barnes, T., M.A. "EEG Asymmetry and Depression Severity: A Comparison of Various Asymmetry Measures." QEEGT. University of North Texas, Neurotherapy Lab, Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation
Lawson, R., M.S., and Bodenhamer-Davis, E. "Anterior Alpha Asymmetry in Anxiety and Depression." Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation
Le Scouarnec RP, Poirier RM, Owens JE, Gauthier J, Taylor AG, Foresman PA. (2001) Use of binaural beat tapes for treatment of anxiety: a pilot study of tape preference and outcomes. Altern Ther Health Med.;7(1):58-63.
Lubar, J. O., and J.F. Lubar. (1984). "Electroencephalographic Biofeedback of SMR and Beta for Treatment of Attention Deficit Disorders in a Clinical Setting." Biofeedback and Self Regulation 9, no. 1, 1-23
Lubar, J.F., Shabsin, H.S., Natelson, S.E., Holder, G.S., Whitsett, S.F., Pamplin, W.E., and Krulikowski, D.I. (1981). "EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperactive child concurrent training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR). A preliminary report." Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1, 293-306.
Lubar, J. F. (1991). "Discourse on the development of EEG diagnostics and biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 16, 201-225.
Lubar, J. F., Swartwood, M. 0., Swartwood, J. N., & O'Donnell, P. FL (1995). "Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.0.V.A. scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance." Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 20, 83-99.
Lynda Thompson, Ph.D. and Michael Thompson, M.D. "Exceptional Results with 'Exceptional Children'." 1995 International Society for Neuronal Regulation Conference
Mann, C. A., Lubar, J. E, Zimmerman, A. W., Miller, C. A., & Muenchen, R. A. (1992). "Quantitative analysis of EEG in boys with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Controlled study with clinical implications." Pediatric Neurology, 8,30-36.
Manns, A., Mirralles, R., Adrian, H. (1981). "The Application of Audio Stimulation and Electromyographic Biofeedback to Bruxism and Myofascial Pain-Dysfunction Syndrome." Oral Surgery, Vol 52, No 3, 247-252.
Margolis, B. (1966) "A Technique For Rapidly Inducing Hypnosis"
Markland, O.N. (1990). "Alpha Rythms." Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 7, 163-189.
Mathewson KE, Prudhomme C, Fabiani M, Beck DM, Lleras A, Gratton G. (2012) “Making waves in the stream of consciousness: entraining oscillations in EEG alpha and fluctuations in visual awareness with rhythmic visual stimulation.” J Cogn Neurosci. 2012 Dec;24(12):2321-33
Moridis, Christos N., et al. (2010) "The impact of audio-visual stimulation on alpha brain oscillations: An EEG study." Information Technology and Applications in Biomedicine (ITAB), 10th IEEE International Conference.
Mullen, W., Berg, K., C.E.T., & Siever, D.,CET. "The Effect of Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) on Hypertension"
Noton D. (2000) Migraine and photic stimulation: report on a survey of migraineurs using flickering light therapy. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2000;6(3):138-142.
Oster, G. (1973). "Auditory beats in the brain." Scientific American, 229, 94-102.
Othmer, S & Othmer, S.F. (1989). "EEG Training for ADHD and Learning Disorders."
Olmstead R. (2005) Use of auditory and visual stimulation to improve cognitive abilities in learning-disabled children. J Neurother. 2005;9(2):49-61.
Rosenzweig, M. R. "Auditory Localization." Perception: Mechanisms and Models, Readings from Scientific American, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Fransisco.
Russell, I. Jon, MD, PhD "The Neurochemical Basis of Fibromyalgia." SNR 2002, International Society for Neuronal Regulation
Schacter, D. L. (1977). "EEG theta waves and psychological phenomena: A review and analysis." Psychology, 5, 47-82.
Siever, D. "Isochronic Tones and Brainwave Entrainment." Unpublished.
Siever, D. (2002) "The Rediscovery of Audio-Visual Entrainment Technology." Self-published by mindalive.ca.
Siever, D., Twittey, M. "Light and Sound Stimulation as a Treatment for Chronic Pain." Unpublished.
Siever, David. (2012) “Audio-Visual Entrainment: A Novel Way of Boosting Grades and Socialization While Reducing Stress in the Typical College Student.” Biofeedback: Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 115-124.
Schmidt, Tino, and Dietmar Henrich. (2012) "Patient Adaptive Neurofeedback for ADHD Therapy." Biomedical Engineering 57: 655-658.
Teplan, Michal, M. Paluš, and Martin Vejmelka. (2010) "EEG phase synchronization and information flow during audio-visual stimulation." Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies (ISABEL), 2010 3rd International Symposium on. IEEE.
Teplan, M., A. Krakovská, and S. Štolc. (2011)"Direct effects of audio-visual stimulation on EEG." Computer methods and programs in biomedicine 102.1: 17-24.
Thomas, Joseph E., Ph.D. and Sattlberger, Elizabeth, B.A. "Treatment of Chronic Anxiety Disorder with Neurotherapy: A Case Study."
Thomas, N., Siever, D. (1976). "The Effect of Repetitive Audio/Visual Stimulation on Skeletomotor and Vascular Activity." Hypnosis - The Fourth European Congress at Oxford.
Timmerman, D. L., Lubar, J. F., Rasey, H. W., Frederick, J. A. (1999). "Effects of 20-Min Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS) at Dominant Alpha Frequency and Twice Dominant Alpha Frequency on the Cortical EEG." International Journal of Psychophysiology.
Toman, J (1941). "Flicker Potentials and the Alpha Rhythm in Man." Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol 4, 51-61.
Trudeau, D., Moore, J., Stockley, H., & Rubin, Y. (1999). "A pilot study of the effect of 18 Hz audio visual stimulation (AVS) on attention and concentration symptoms and on quantitative EEG (QEEG) in long-term chronic fatigue (CFS)." Journal of Neurotherapy 3~4), 76
Trudeau, D. (1999). "A Trial of 18 Hz Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS) on Attention and Concentration in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)." Presented at the Society for Neuronal Regulation.
Utter, C. P. (1996). A controlled study of the effects of neurofeedback training on IQ and EEG patterns for ADD subjects. Unpublished manuscript. College of Wooster.
Vernon, D., et al. (2012)"Tracking EEG changes in response to alpha and beta binaural beats." International Journal of Psychophysiology
Vogt, F., Klimesh, W., Dopelmayr, M. (1998). "High Frequency Components in the Alpha Band and Memory Performance." Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 15, 167-172.
Walter, V. J. & Walter, W. G. (1949). "The central effects of rhythmic sensory stimulation." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1, 57-86.
Walton, K.G., Pugh, N. (1995) "Stress Reduction and Preventing Hypertension: Preliminary Support for Psychoneuroendocrine Mechanism." The Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine, Vol 1
Wong, M.R., Brochin, N.E., & Genfron, K.L. (1981). "Effects of meditation on anxiety and chemical dependency." Journal of Drug Education, 11, 91-105.
Zaini, Norliza, Hasmila Omar, and Mohd Fuad Abdul Latip. (2011) "Semantic-based Bayesian Network to determine correlation between binaural-beats features and entrainment effects." Computer Applications and Industrial Electronics (ICCAIE), 2011 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE
Zametkin, A. I, Liebenauer, L. L., King, A. C., Minunkas, D. V., Herscovitch, P., Yamada, E. M., & Cohen, R. M. (1993). "Brain metabolism in teenagers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder." Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 333-340.
Zhuang, Tianbao, Hong Zhao, and Zheng Tang. (2009) "A Study of Brainwave Entrainment Based on EEG Brain Dynamics." Computer and Information Science 2.2 (2009): 80.
invite you to check the references given on this website:
We also invite you to check the references given on this website: